New exotic states of matter

Introduction:

We all have read the common types of states of matter (i.e. solid liquid and gas) in our primary school. When we move to high school, we came to know about more two states of matter (i.e. plasma and BEC). But do you know how many states of matter do exist in this universe. Would you believe if i say there are more than 18 states of matter, but you have to believe because it's a fact. Scientists are discovering new States of matter like every new day. There are a lot of weird and exciting states of matter, which exist in extreme environmental conditions.



Today we aren't discuss about all the states of matter but gonna discuss about some new interesting exotic states of matter.


Quark Gluon Plasma:

It is the hottest known object in the entire universe. In this state of matter, quarks and gluons lives freely. Due to extreme temperature and pressure, the atoms get disintegrated and even the neutrons and protons of an atom literally get melts. And hence the fundamental particles of nature i.e. quarks and gluon exists freely. 


This exotic state of matter can be created by heating a normal matter up to  2*10^12 K or 1999999999726.85°C.

Excitonium:

Excitonium is basically a condensate, a collection of particles that exhibit quantum phenomena like superconductivity or superfluidity on a macroscopic scale.Excitonium is made up of smaller particles called exciton.

Excitons are strange particles these are formed when an electron gets excited and jumps over the energy gap to the other empty conduction band, it leaves behind a ''hole'' in the valence band. That hole behaves as though it were a particle with positive charge, and it attracts that escaped electron. When the escaped electron with its negative charge, pairs up with the hole, it form a composite particle, a boson - an exciton.

Researchers from University of California and University of Illinois studied non-doped crystals of a transition metal — Dichalcogenide Titanium Diselenide (1T-TiSe2), to produce excitonium. You will be surprised to know that they were successfully produce it for 5 times. 




Time crystals:

Normal crystals which are found in nature,  generally have repeating patterns but they remained unchanged with the passage of time. On the other hand a time crystals or space time crystals is a type of matter, which repeats in time as well as space. This matter was first proposed in 2012 and first observed in 2017.

Some crazy professor and their students built a quantum system using a small piece of diamond embedded with millions of atomic-scale impurities known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. They then used microwave pulses to make the system out of equilibrium, which causes the NV center's spins to flip at precisely timed intervals. And we got one of the coolest matter - "time crystal". Scientists believed that by studying these type of non-equilibrium matters, we can increase the efficiency of quantum computers.



Rydberg polarons:

It is an exotic states of matter, where a number of small atoms exist inside a one large atom. For the formation of this atom, scientists combine another two types of matter, those are Bose Einstein Condensate (a small super cooled state of matter) and Rydberg atoms (an excited state where electrons are very far from the nucleous).

This new state of matter was predicted by scientists at Harvard University in 2016 and confirmed by 2018 through an experiement using a strontium Bose-Einstein condensate. According to some calculations, up to 170 ordinary strontium atoms could fit inside the Rydberg atom.


Hey guys these type of posts took a lot of effort. Your comments  and  sharings will be massively appreciated.

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